Hydrogels for Osteochondral
Tissue Engineering
Journal of Biomedical

(March 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Activity
& Transdermal Delivery
of GHK Peptide
Journal of Peptide Science
(March 2020)
Pulsed Glow Discharge
to GHK-Cu Determination
International Journal
of Mass Spectrometry

(March 2020)
Protective Effects of GHK-Cu
in Pulmonary Fibrosis
Life Sciences
(January 2020)
Anti-Wrinkle Benefits
of GHK-Cu Stimulating
Skin Basement Membrane
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(January 2020)
Structural Analysis
Molecular Dynamics of
Skin Protective
TriPeptide GHK
Journal of Molecular Structure
(January 2020)
In Vitro / In Vivo Studies
pH-sensitive GHK-Cu in
Superabsorbent Polymer
GHK Enhances
Stem Cells Osteogenesis
Acta Biomaterialia
Antibacterial GHK-Cu
Nanoparticles for
Wound Healing
Particle & Particle (2019)
Effect of GHK-Cu
on Stem Cells and
Relevant Genes
OBM Geriatrics
GHK Alleviates
Neuronal Apoptosis Due
to Brain Hemorrhage
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Endogenous Antioxidant
International Journal of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology (2018)
Regenerative and
Protective Actions of
GHK-Cu Peptide
International Journal of
Molecular Sciences
Skin Regenerative and
Anti-Cancer Actions
of Copper Peptides
GHK-Cu Accelerates
Scald Wound Healing
Promoting Angiogenesis
Wound Repair and

GHK Peptide Inhibits
Pulmonary Fibrosis
by Suppressing TGF-β1
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Skin Cancer Therapy
with Copper Peptides
The Effect of Human
Peptide GHK Relevant to
Nervous System Function
and Cognitive Decline
Brain Sciences (2017)
Effects of Tripeptide
GHK in Pain-Induced
Aggressive Behavior
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
GHK-Cu Elicits
In Vitro Alterations
in Extracellular Matrix
Am Journal of Respiratory
and Critical Care Medicine

Selected Biomarkers &
Copper Compounds
Scientific Reports

GHK-Cu on Collagen,
Elastin, and Facial Wrinkles
Journal of Aging Science
Tri-Peptide GHK-Cu
and Acute Lung Injury

Effect of GHK Peptide
on Pain Sensitivity
Experimental Pharmacology

New Data of the
Cosmeceutical and
TriPeptide GHK
SOFW Journal
GHK Peptide as a
Natural Modulator of
Multiple Cellular Pathways
in Skin Regeneration
BioMed Research (2015)
Resetting Skin Genome
Back to Health
Naturally with GHK
Textbook of Aging Skin
GHK-Cu May Prevent
Oxidative Stress in Skin
by Regulating Copper and
Modifying Expression of
Numerous Antioxidant Genes Cosmetics (2015)
GHK Increases
TGF-β1 in
Human Fibroblasts

Acta Poloniae

The Human Skin Remodeling Peptide Induces Anti-Cancer
Expression and DNA Repair Analytical Oncology
Resetting the
Human Genome to Health
BioMed Research
Enhanced Tropic Factor Secretion of Mesenchymal
Stem Cells with GHK
Acta Biomater
Anxiolytic (Anti-Anxiety)
Effects of GHK Peptide
Bulletin of Experimental
Biology & Medicine
Lung Destruction and
its Reversal by GHK
Genome Medicine
TriPeptide GHK Induces
Programmed Cell Death
of Neuroblastoma
Journal of Biotechnology
Stem Cell
Recovering Effect
of GHK in Skin
Peptide Science
Skin Penetration of
Copper Tripeptide in Vitro
Journal of International
Inflammation Research
Possible Therapeutics
for Colorectal Cancer
Journal of Clinical and
Experimental Metastasis
Methods of Controlling
Differentiation and
Proliferation of Stem Cells
Effects of
Copper Tripeptide
on Irradiated Fibroblasts
American Medical Association
Avoid Buying Fake Copper Peptides Dangerous

GHK Reverses Cortisone Inhibition of Regeneration      

The cortisone/cortisol system strongly inhibits tissue regeneration and repair. Elevated cortisone/cortisol have been proposed as accelerators of human ageing. During studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s, we found that GHK-copper 2+ reversed cortisone-induced inhibition of regeneration in rats, mice, and pigs. Cortisone was used to slow healing in animal tests so that the effect of copper complexes could be better studied. Little of this was published but some data exists in a published United States Patent, Number 5,164,367. Below are the results of a typical experiment of cortisone-healing inhibited rats treated with GHK-copper 2+. Dr. H. Paul Ehrlich, a wound healing expert, had suggested this method.

After about year 2000, there rose a general awareness that the cortisone/cortisol system was a possible accelerator of human aging. The cortisone/cortisol concentration increases during aging. DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) blocks many negatives effects of cortisone/cortisol but DHEA decreases with time, This allows the negative actions of the cortisone/cortisol system become stronger.

GHK-copper 2+ also decreases during aging, dropping by 60% between age 20 to age 60 in health men. This also may intensify the negative actions of the cortisone/cortisol system.

Important Information on Cortisone / Cortisol & Brain Effects

Cortisone and cortisol are linked to brain problems and dementia. These two very similar molecules are easily converted from one to another.Patients with Alzheimer’s disease have elevated levels of cortisol in their blood streams, compared to healthy patients.

This elevation correlated with the degree of memory impairments that the patients had and appeared early on in the disease progression.

Cortisone injections can cause reversible dementia.

GHK may possibly reduce dementia in humans.

Data from:

United States Patent 5,164,367
Pickart November 17, 1992

Method of using copper(II) containing compounds to accelerate wound healing 


Methods for the use of compositions of copper(II) containing compounds to accelerate healing of wounds in warm-blooded animals. The methods include systemic loading of copper(II) to accelerate the rate of wound healing following injury or surgery. The copper(II) containing compounds include copper(II) complexes with amino acids and peptides, and copper(II) salts.

Example 11 from patent.

Stimulation of Wound Healing in Healing Impaired Rats by I.M. Injection of Glycyl-Histidyl-Lysine:Copper(II) 

Groups of rats had wound chambers implanted as described in Example 10. After implantation of the chambers, the rats were subsequently injected with Cortisone Acetate (10 mg I.M. daily, Cortone Acetate, Merck) to impair the healing response. After allowing for encapsulation of the chambers, the rats were injected I.M. (in the opposite leg from the cortisone injection) with 0.1 ml of either a saline solution containing 10 mg/ml of glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine:copper(II) (2:1 molar ratio) or saline. The chambers were harvested and the biochemical parameters of granulation tissue formation examined as described in Example 10. 

The I.M. injection of glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine:copper(II) in the cortisone treated animals increased the level of all the biochemical parameters examined compared to the level found in the control animals. Moreover, I.M. treatment with the GHK-Cu increased the healing response in the healing impaired animals to the level found in the normal animals. The results of this experiment are presented in Table 2. Ten rats each group.

Cortisone Healing Impaired Rats - GHK-copper vs saline

DRY WEIGHT mgs/chamber
mg chamber / gram
Units AP/chamber
Saline Control

20 +/- 12

11 +/- 8

187 +/- 101

0.5 +/-. 0.3

Treated with GHK-Cu

35 +/- 13

25 +/- 9

366 +/- 74

1.5 +/- 0.6


Howes, Edward L., et al. "Retardation of wound healing by cortisone."Surgery 28.2 (1950): 179-181.

Ehrlich, H. PAUL, and THOMAS K. Hunt. "The effects of cortisone and anabolic steroids on the tensile strength of healing wounds." Annals of Surgery 170.2 (1969): 203.

Deuschle, M., et al. "Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study."Stress 2.4 (1998): 281-287.

Swaab, D. F., et al. "Increased cortisol levels in aging and Alzheimer's disease in postmortem cerebrospinal fluid." Journal of neuroendocrinology6.6 (1994): 681-687

Lupien, Sonia J., et al. "Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits." Nature neuroscience 1.1 (1998): 69-73.

Seeman, Teresa E., et al. "Increase in Urinary Cortisol Excretion and Memory Declines: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging 1." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 82.8 (1997): 2458-2465.

Lupien, S. J., et al. "Increased cortisol levels and impaired cognition in human aging: implication for depression and dementia in later life." Reviews in the Neurosciences 10.2 (1999): 117-140.

Sean F. Kelley, Arthur M. Felix, H. Paul Ehrlich The Antagonism of Glucocorticoid Inhibition of Wound Healing in Rats by Growth Hormone-Releasing Factordoi: 10.3181/00379727-194-43098 Exp Biol Med (Maywood) September 1990 vol. 194 no. 4 320-326.

Ehrlich, H. Paul, Hunt, Thomas K. Effects of Cortisone and Vitamin A on Wound Healing. Annals of Surgery, Volume 167: 324-328, 1968.

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